Ashtadhyayi
A 6th-century-BCE Sanskrit grammar compiled by Panini that contains 3,959 rules (or sutras) of Sanskrit morphology, and it is the earliest known Sanskrit grammar. It is also the earliest known work of descriptive and generative linguistics – i.e. it describes how Sanskrit was spoken, and it give rules for creating properly formed Sanskrit sentences.

Notes:
1. It is often cited as an example of a pre-modern grammar that approaches the sophistication of modern linguistic syntactic theory.

For example: "[The Astadhyayi] is a highly precise and thorough description of the structure of Sanskrit somewhat resembling modern generative grammar…[it] remained the most advanced linguistic analysis of any kind until the twentieth century."
Source: Fortson IV, Benjamin W. (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Blackwell. p. 186.

Example -
The first 2 of the 3,959 sutras are:
1.1.1: the technical term vrddih denotes the phonemes {a, ai, au}.
1.1.2: the technical term guṇa denotes the phonemes {a, e, o}.

Etymology -
The name means "eight chapters" in Sanskrit.



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