Definition - The process of forming a word that looks like a root-word by removing affixes from an already existing word.

Example -
The verb to scavenge was back-formed from the noun scavenger.
Note: The verb to back-form has just now been coined from the noun back-formation.

Etymology -
Some claim that the term was coined by James Murray, the editor of the OED; for proof, see the OED citation's source below.

Oxford English Dictionary -
Its first citation is from 1889:
"Burgle … A back-formation from Burglar."
(New English Dictionary (James Murray, editor))

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