cardinal vowels
A set of reference vowels used by phoneticians to describe language sounds. For example, the vowel of the English word "feet" can be described with reference to cardinal vowel 1 [i], which is the cardinal vowel closest to it.

The cardinal vowels with Daniel Jones




Notes:
1. The current system was systematised by Daniel Jones in the early 20th century, though the idea goes back to earlier phoneticians, notably Ellis and Bell.



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