dash (– and —)
Definition - A horizontal punctuation mark of varying length that is used, for example, to indicate pauses or breaks in a sentence and omissions of words or letters.

Notes:
1. There are several types, e.g. the em dash, the en dash, the figure dash, and the quotation dash.

Oxford English Dictionary -
The term's first citation in this sense is from 1824:
"The Dash, though often used improperly…may be introduced with propriety, where the sentence breaks off abruptly…A dash following a stop, denotes that the pause is to be greater than if the stop were alone."
(L. Murray Eng. Gram. (ed. 5) I. 406)



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