Definition - To break up a phrase, sentence, or passage into its grammatical parts, while at the same time describing the syntactic roles of these parts.

Etymology -
The term and concept ultimately derive from the Latin grammar school question Quae pars orationis?, What part of speech (is it)?

Oxford English Dictionary -
Its first citation is from about 1553:
"He [Prince Edward] hath learned almoste foure bookes of Cato to construe, to parse, and to say wythout booke."
(Coxe Let. in Foxe A. & M. (1583) 1395/2 )

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