| Definition -
A name that is used to designate a particular individual entity. As opposed to a common name, which is a name given to a class of objects.
1. They are usually capitalized (Bob Jones), but not always (e.e.cummings).
2. The study of proper names is called onomastics.
David Jones, Mercury, Vancouver, Detroit Red Wings, and the ODLT.
Oxford English Dictionary - The term's first citation is from c1290:
"Heo was icleoped in propre name ‘Þe Maudeleyne’."
(S. Eng. Leg. I. 462/18)
Quotation - "A proper name [is] a word that answers the purpose of showing what thing it is that we are talking about, but not of telling anything about it".
(Source: John Stuart Mill from A System of Logic (1. ii. 5.), )