proper name
Definition - A name that is used to designate a particular individual entity. As opposed to a common name, which is a name given to a class of objects.

1. They are usually capitalized (Bob Jones), but not always (e.e.cummings).
2. The study of proper names is called onomastics.

Example -
David Jones, Mercury, Vancouver, Detroit Red Wings, and the ODLT.

Oxford English Dictionary -
The term's first citation is from c1290:
"Heo was icleoped in propre name ‘Þe Maudeleyne’."
(S. Eng. Leg. I. 462/18)

Quotation -
"A proper name [is] a word that answers the purpose of showing what thing it is that we are talking about, but not of telling anything about it".
(Source: John Stuart Mill from A System of Logic (1. ii. 5.), )

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