transliterate
Definition - To render the letters or characters of one alphabet into those of another.

Example -
The French term diglossie was coined as a transliteration of the Greek διγλωσσία, diglossia, which means "bilingualism."

Etymology -
The word was (as far as I can tell) coined by the German philologist Max Müller (1823–1900) from trans, across + the Latin littera, letter or character.

Oxford English Dictionary -
Its first citation is from 1861:
"Not only proper names, but the technical terms also of the Buddhist creed, had to be preserved in Chinese.
They were not to be translated, but to be transliterated.
But how was this to be effected with a language which, like Chinese, has no phonetic alphabet?"
( Max Müller in Sat. Rev. 9 Mar. 247/1)


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